Alcestis. As by “Howard phillips Lovecraft and Sonia Haft Greene Lovecraft.”
Madison, WI: Strange Co., 1985. 15 pp.
Facsimile of the A.Ms. of a play (in Sonia Greene’s handwriting) that the editor, R. Alain Everts, maintains was co-written by Lovecraft and Greene. The degree of Lovecraft’s involvement (if any) is, however, undetermined.
—S. T. Joshi, H. P. Lovecraft: A Comprehensive Bibliography (2009) 195
Prior to their marriage, Sonia had suggested three ghost story plots, two of which Lovecraft expanded into stories that appeared in WEIRD TALES magazine. The third tale rests unpublished as did this play, written out in longhand by Sonia, sometime in the early 1930’s. This play was written much the same way—Sonia suggested the theme, the classical Greek subject matter delighting Lovecraft, and then Lovecraft set out to flesh out the play. His notes on Greek Mythology and on Alcestis particularly have survived, indicating that as was usual, most of the writing was his alone. despite the handwriting being that of Sonia, who likely was acting as Lovecraft’s scribe, the play bears the mark more of Lovecraft than his wife.
—R. Alain Everts, introduction to Alcestis: A Play (1985)
In the late 1960s R. Alain Everts, using a tape recorder provided by Brown University (where Lovecraft’s papers are archived), conducted a series of interviews with surviving acquaintances of H. P. Lovecraft and his circle, notably including Wilfred Blanch Talman and Sonia Davis, Lovecraft’s former wife. After the conclusion of the interviews, it became clear to Brown University that Everts had also collected materials from some of the interviewees which he did not turn over to the university. The university took out the unusual step of issuing a notice to booksellers against purchasing this material, which began a series of legal suits (see 757 F.2d 124).
In the 1970s, Everts began publishing articles based on his interviews including “Howard Phillips Lovecraft and Sex: or The Sex Life of a Gentleman,” as well as fanzines and chapbooks under the imprint “The Strange Company,” including previously unseen photographs of Lovecraft & co., letters, and Alcestis: A Play (printed in 1975 but not published until 1985). Released in an edition of only 200 copies and never reprinted, it is the rarest and most contentious of Lovecraft’s collaborations.
The play is based on Euripides’ play of the same name, which was available in several translations during Lovecraft’s lifetime, including Coleridge’s 1906 verse translation. The exact translation Howard and Sonia might have been familiar with is unknown, as no such work is listed in Lovecraft’s Library: A Catalogue, but Lovecraft specifically mentions Alcestis among Euripides’ plays in his Collected Essays (2.185). Sonia’s memoir of their marriage, The Private Life of H. P. Lovecraft (1985) likewise emphasizes their appreciation for ancient Greece:
The nomenclature of “Socrates and Xantippe” were originated by me because, as time marched on and our correspondence became more intimate, I either saw in Howard or endowed him with a Socratic wisdom and genius, so that in a jocular vein I subscribed myself as Xantippe.
—Sonia Davis, The Private Life of H. P. Lovecraft 27
The is no mention of Alcestis: A Play in the published correspondence of H. P. Lovecraft; then again, Lovecraft rarely mentioned his marriage or his wife in his correspondence after their separation, so this does not preclude collaboration. Even after Sonia filed for divorce, they remained on friendly terms and continued to correspond. Lovecraft is known to have visited her in March 1933, as she was recovering from an illness after returning from a trip to Europe (ibid. 22). Possibly this visit allowed for collaboration or at least inspired her to make this holograph manuscript; Sonia herself never alludes to the play in her memoir.
Absent all other evidence the only determination as to whether Lovecraft and Sonia did or did not collaborate on Alcestis: A Play is to look at the text itself.
Night. A cemetery beside a high-road, under a horned moon. Edge of road with low wall in the foreground. Ground covered with asphodel (the flower of the dead) and studded with tombs and stelae, rises unevenly to wall of cyclopean masonry overgrown with vines and lichens.
“Cyclopean” is famously one of Lovecraft’s favorite adjectives, but otherwise there is no exact bit of language readers can lean on to discern who is the author; it’s a work for stylometrists. If Lovecraft was involved, the play marks a departure from his usual style: being all-dialogue, with a few descriptions of scenes and action.
Worth noting is that despite carrying her name, the character of Alcestis—who sacrificed herself so that her husband might live—never appears in the brief play. It is more accurate to say that Alcestis: A Play is a kind of prologue, setting up the events where Apollo is made the servant of Admetus and the bargain with the Fates, ending on the rather hopeful upbeat that someone will be found willing to die in the king’s place.
Addendum: Since writing this entry, I’ve discovered that a typewritten edition of the play and prologue, probably made in the 1960s, survive at the John Hay Library and can be viewed online for free.
Bobby Derie is the author of Weird Talers: Essays on Robert E. Howard & Others (2019) and Sex and the Cthulhu Mythos (2014).
5 thoughts on “Alcestis: A Play (1985) by Sonia H. Greene & H. P. Lovecraft”
Discover my new book at http://www.aiglebotte-editions.fr
about Lovecraft and Sonia “Howard, mon amour” http://www.facebook.com/statementofRC
I have a question concerning the relationship between the Prologue and the Play itself. I can read in this article that the Prologue (in which Alcestis never appears) was written by H.P. Lovecraft and Sonia H. Greene, and the Play is not mentioned (beside the addendum). Does this mean that the Play was written later than the Prologue? Was it not written by Lovecraft and Greene? Or was it just not considered in the edition published in 1985? Unfortunately, I couldn’t get a copy of this edition so I cannot check myself, but I have read the typewritten edition at John Hay Library, both prologue and play, and I would like to know if the latter can be considered authentic.
Thank you very much for Your attention.
We don’t have a lot of information on the writing, but the work has always been presented as a collaboration between Lovecraft and Sonia H. Greene; when I call it a prologue I mean that their work seems to be set prior to the events of Euripides’ play, also titled ALCESTIS.
Thank you for your swift response. I might be a bit confused because in the scanned pages at John Hay Library there seem to be a Prologue (as described in this article) and a Play (which is very similar to Euripides’ Alcestis). In this article and in another paper (by Hanna M. Roisman) I can read that Lovecraft and Sonia H. Greene only wrote a Prologue set prior the original play and Alcestis never appears. But in the typewritten edition she does appear and the plot takes place both before the original play and also at the same time of Euripides’ play. These are the reasons of my confusion, but maybe I have misunderstood something.
Thank You for Your attention,
Okay, I see where the confusion is. We have three textual sources:
1) A holograph manuscript (15 pp) which contains the handwritten prologue, which was published by The Strange Company.
2) An incomplete holograph manuscript (1 p) with just the beginning of the prologue: https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:425546/
2) A complete typescript of both the prologue (10pp) and the play itself (14pp): https://repository.library.brown.edu/studio/item/bdr:417624/
Might need to edit the post itself to make that clear.